Personality Traits Predict Performance Differently Across Different Jobs

Michael Wilmot, University of Arkansas.
Photo Submitted

Michael Wilmot, University of Arkansas.

FAYETTEVILLE, Ark. – Can your personality affect your job performance? It depends on the job, according to a new study by management and psychology researchers. 

“Although past studies made statements about the effects of personality traits on job performance in general, the specifics of these relationships really depend on the job,” said Michael Wilmot, assistant professor of management in the Sam M. Walton College of Business at the University of Arkansas. “More interesting findings exist when we take a deeper look at performance within the different jobs.”

Wilmot and Deniz Ones, professor of psychology at the University of Minnesota, combinedmultiple meta-analyses of the five big personality traits — conscientiousness, extraversion, openness, agreeableness and neuroticism — and examined their effect on job performance. Meta-analysis is a process used to systematically merge multiple independent findings using statistical methods to calculate an overall effect.

The researchers indexed these personality trait relationships across nine major occupational groups — clerical, customer service, healthcare, law enforcement, management, military, professional, sales, and skilled/semiskilled. They accounted for job complexity and what occupational experts rate as the relevance of these personality traits to job requirements.

Overall, Wilmot and Ones found that relationships between personality traits and performance varied greatly across the nine major occupational groups. The main source of these differences pertained to occupational complexity.

Conscientiousness predicted performance in all jobs. However, its effect was stronger in jobs with low and medium levels of cognitive demands and weaker in highly cognitively demanding jobs. Extraversion was stronger in jobs with medium levels of cognitive complexity.

Other traits showed stronger effects when they were more relevant to specific occupational requirements. For example, agreeableness predicted better in healthcare jobs and extraversion predicted better in sales and management jobs.

In all, results suggested that jobs with moderate occupational complexity might be ideal — the “goldilocks range,” as Wilmot says — for relying on personality traits to predict job performance. 

The researchers also compared the empirical findings to occupational experts’ ratings of the relevance of personality traits to job performance. They found the ratings to be mostly accurate. For a majority of the occupational groups — 77%, specifically — the two most highly rated traits matched the two most highly predictive traits revealed in the meta-analyses.

“These findings should prove useful for scholars pursuing a richer understanding of personality — performance relations and for organizations honing employee talent identification and selection systems,” said Wilmot. “They should also benefit individuals trying to choose the right vocation and, really, society at-large, which would reap the collective benefits of better occupational performance.”

The researchers’ findings were published in the Journal of Vocational Behavior.

About the University of Arkansas: As Arkansas' flagship institution, the U of A provides an internationally competitive education in more than 200 academic programs. Founded in 1871, the U of A contributes more than $2.2 billion to Arkansas’ economy through the teaching of new knowledge and skills, entrepreneurship and job development, discovery through research and creative activity while also providing training for professional disciplines. The Carnegie Foundation classifies the U of A among the top 3% of U.S. colleges and universities with the highest level of research activity. U.S. News & World Report ranks the U of A among the top public universities in the nation. See how the U of A works to build a better world at Arkansas Research News.

Contacts

Michael Wilmot, assistant professor of management
Sam M. Walton College of Business
479-575-2912, mpwilmot@uark.edu

Matt McGowan, science and research communications officer
University Relations
479-575-4246, dmcgowa@uark.edu

Headlines

Groundbreaking for Fine Arts Center Restoration Nov. 29

The U of A will host a groundbreaking ceremony for the restoration of the Fine Arts Center at 11 a.m. Tuesday, Nov. 29, at the courtyard off Garland Avenue. The event is free and open to the public.

Ranch Horse Team Goes from Stock Horse of Texas World Show Reserve Champ to Overall Title

The U of A ranch horse team won the overall Division II collegiate title at this year's event in October, and student Jessica Bookout won the reserve all-around championship.

Honors College Recognizes Exceptional Faculty

The Honors College will recognize eight faculty members at the annual Honors College Faculty Reception from 5:30-7 p.m. on Tuesday, Dec. 6, in the Fowler House Conservatory.

Malloy, Shumaker, Kelley Win Hoyt Purvis Awards for Aiding International Programs

Sarah Malloy of the Office of Study Abroad, Camilla Shumaker of ITS and Christopher Kelley of the School of Law were honored with the Hoyt Purvis Award for their service to the field of international education.

Joe Hatfield, Communication Faculty Member, Wins Dissertation of the Year Award

Hatfield's dissertation merges multiple methodological frameworks to analyze the mediated history of trans suicide, with a focus on the 2014 suicide of 17-year-old Leelah Alcorn.

News Daily